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About Canton, OH (44706)
Canton () is a city in and the county seat of Stark County, Ohio, United States. Canton is located approximately 60 miles (97 km) south of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio. The city lies on the edge of Ohio's extensive Amish country, particularly in Holmes and Wayne counties to the city's west and southwest. Canton is the largest municipality in the Canton-Massillon, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Stark and Carroll counties. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 404,422. The city proper had 73,007 residents, making Canton eighth among Ohio cities in population.
Founded in 1805 alongside the Middle and West Branches of Nimishillen Creek, Canton became a heavy manufacturing center because of its numerous railroad lines. However, its status in that regard began to decline during the late 20th century, as shifts in the manufacturing industry led to the relocation or downsizing of many factories and workers. After this decline, the city's industry diversified into the service economy, including retailing, education, finance and healthcare.
Canton is chiefly notable for being the home of the Pro Football Hall of Fame and the birthplace of the National Football League. 25th U.S. President William McKinley conducted the famed front porch campaign, which won him the presidency of the United States in the 1896 election, from his home in Canton. The McKinley National Memorial and the William McKinley Presidential Library and Museum commemorate his life and presidency. Canton was also chosen as the site of the First Ladies National Historic Site largely in honor of his wife, Ida Saxton McKinley.
Canton is currently experiencing an urban renaissance, anchored by its growing and thriving arts district centrally located in the downtown area. Several historic buildings have been rehabilitated and converted into upscale lofts, attracting thousands of new downtown residents into the city. Furthering this downtown development, in June 2016, Canton became one of the first cities in Ohio to allow the open consumption of alcoholic beverages in a "designated outdoor refreshment area" pursuant to a state law enacted in 2015 (Sub. H.B. No. 47).
Canton was founded in 1805, incorporated as a village in 1822, and re-incorporated as a city in 1838.
Bezaleel Wells, the surveyor who divided the land of the town, named it after Canton (a traditional English name for Guangzhou, China). The name was a memorial to a trader named John O'Donnell, whom Wells admired. O'Donnell had named his Maryland plantation after the Chinese city, as he had been the first person to transport goods from there to Baltimore.
Canton was the adopted home of President William McKinley. Born in Niles, McKinley first practiced law in Canton around 1867, and was prosecuting attorney of Stark County from 1869 to 1871. The city was his home during his successful campaign for Ohio governor, the site of his front-porch presidential campaign of 1896 and the campaign of 1900. Canton is now the site of the William McKinley Presidential Library and Museum and the McKinley National Memorial, dedicated in 1907.
In 1888 the Dueber Watch Case Company and the Hampden Watch Company moved to Canton. In 1923 the two businesses merged to become the Dueber-Hampden Watch Company.
Canton's street layout forms the basis for the system of addresses in Stark County. Canton proper is divided into address quadrants (NW, NE, SW, SE) by Tuscarawas Street (dividing N and S) and Market Avenue (dividing E and W). Due to shifts in the street layout, the E-W divider becomes Cleveland Avenue south of the city, merging onto Ridge Road farther out. The directionals are noted as suffixes to the street name (e.g. Tuscarawas St W, 55th Street NE). Typically within the city numbered streets run east and west and radiate from the Tuscarawas Street baseline, while named avenues run north and south.
This system extends into Stark County but is not shared by the cities of Massillon, Louisville, East Canton or North Canton, which have their own internal address grids.
Canton is located at an elevation of 1060 feet (323 m). Nimishillen Creek and its East, Middle and West Branches flow through the city.
Canton is bordered by Plain Township and North Canton to the north, Meyers Lake and Perry Township to the west, Canton Township to the South, and Nimishillen Township, Osnaburg Township and East Canton to the east. Annexations were approved in December 2006 extending Canton's eastern boundary to East Canton's border.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.48 square miles (65.99 km2), of which, 25.46 square miles (65.94 km2) is land and 0.02 square miles (0.05 km2) is water.
Canton has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), typical of much of the Midwestern United States, with very warm, humid summers and cold winters. Winters tend to be cold, with average January high temperatures of 33 °F (1 °C), and average lows of 19 °F (?7 °C), with considerable variation in temperatures. During a typical January, high temperatures of over 50 °F (10 °C) are just as common as low temperatures of below 0 °F (?18 °C). Snowfall is lighter than the snow belt areas to the north. Akron-Canton Airport generally averages 47.1 inches (120 cm) of snow per season. Springs are short with rapid transition from hard winter to summer weather. Summers tend to be warm, sometimes hot, with average July high temperatures of 82 °F (28 °C), and average July low of 62 °F (17 °C). Summer weather is more stable, generally humid with thunderstorms fairly common. Temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) about 9 times each summer, on average. Fall usually is the driest season with many clear, warm days and cool nights. The all-time record high in the Akron-Canton area of 104 °F (40 °C) was established on August 6, 1918, and the all-time record low of ?25 °F (?32 °C) was set on January 19, 1994.
Canton is the largest principal city of the Canton-Massillon Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that covers Carroll and Stark counties and had a combined population of 404,422 at the 2010 census.
As of the census of 2000, there were 80,806 people, 32,489 households, and 19,785 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,932.1 people per square mile (1,518.2/km2). There were 35,502 housing units at an average density of 1,728.0 per square mile (667.0/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 74.45% White, 21.04% African American, 0.49% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, and 3.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.24% of the population.
There were 32,489 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.1% were married couples living together, 19.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.04.
In the city the age distribution of the population shows 26.6% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $28,730, and the median income for a family was $35,680. Males had a median income of $30.628 versus $21,581 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,544. About 15.4% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 11.3% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2010, there were 73,007 people, 29,705 households, and 17,127 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,867.5 inhabitants per square mile (1,107.1/km2). There were 34,571 housing units at an average density of 1,357.9 per square mile (524.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 69.1% White, 24.2% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.0% from other races, and 4.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population.
There were 29,705 households of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.8% were married couples living together, 21.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.3% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.04.
The median age in the city was 35.6 years. 25.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 10.8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.6% were from 25 to 44; 25.6% were from 45 to 64; and 12.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.4% male and 52.6% female.
Canton has a mayor?council government and is the largest city in Ohio to operate without a charter. The city council is divided among nine wards with three at-large seats and the council president. The 2016?2017 elected officials of the City of Canton consist of:
Canton is represented by the following office holders at the Ohio state government:
The City of Canton is represented by the following U.S. federal officials:
The Canton area's economy is primarily industrial, with significant health care and agricultural segments. The city is home to the TimkenSteel Corporation, a major manufacturer of specialty steel. Several other large companies operate in the greater-Canton area, including Timken Company a maker of tapered roller bearings; Belden Brick Company, a brick and masonry producer; Diebold, a maker of ATMs, electronic voting devices, and bank vaults, and Medline Industries, a manufacturer and distributor of health care supplies. The area is also home to several regional food producers, including Nickles Bakery (baked goods), Case Farms (poultry), and Shearer's Foods (snack foods). Poultry production and dairy farming are also important segments of the Canton area's economy.
In recent years, Canton has experienced a very low unemployment rate. The healthcare sector is particularly strong, with Aultman Hospital and Mercy Medical Center among its largest employers. Nevertheless, as in many industrial areas of the United States, employment in the manufacturing sector is in a state of decline. LTV Steel (formerly Republic Steel) suffered bankruptcy in 2000. Republic Steel emerged and continues to maintain operations in Canton. Hoover Company, a major employer for decades in the region reached an agreement to sell Hoover to Hong Kong-based Techtronic Industries. The main plant in nearby North Canton closed its doors in September 2007. On June 30, 2014, the Timken Company and TimkenSteel split, forming two separate companies at the urging of shareholders. The Timken Company relocated to neighboring Jackson Township, while TimkenSteel remains headquartered in Canton. In response to this changing manufacturing landscape, the city is undergoing a transition to a retail and service-based economy.
Beginning in the 1970s, Canton, like many mid-size American cities, lost most of its downtown retail business to the suburbs. The majority of the Canton area's "box store" retail is located in the general vicinity of the Belden Village Mall in Jackson Township. However, in recent years, the downtown area has seen significant rejuvenation, with cafes, restaurants, and the establishment of an arts district. A few retail centers remain in Canton at or near the city limits. Tuscarawas Street (Lincoln Way), a leg of the Lincoln Highway connecting Canton with nearby Massillon, is home to the Canton Centre Mall and several retail outlets of varying size. A vein of commerce runs along Whipple Avenue, connecting the Canton Centre area with the Belden Village area. A similar vein runs north from the downtown area, along Cleveland and Market avenues. Connecting Cleveland and Market avenues is a small shopping district on 30th Street NW, and retail lines the Route 62 corridor leading from Canton to Louisville and Alliance.
In recent years, Canton has come to experience a renaissance. At the heart of this transformation is the Pro Football Hall of Fame, with its multimillion-dollar "Hall of Fame Village" expansion project. This project has been complemented with significant investments by city leaders in urban redevelopment, which continued with the transformation of the Hotel Onesto into the Historic Onesto Lofts. Other urban renewal plans are underway, which include the redevelopment of the downtown Market Square area. Private investment has furthered Canton's transformation, which is illustrated by the multimillion-dollar creation of the Gervasi Vineyard, which draws patrons throughout the region. In furtherance of these development initiatives, Canton was one of the first cities in Ohio to create a "designated outdoor refreshment area" legalizing the possession and consumption of "open container" alchohlic beverages in its downtown area.
According to Canton's 2016 Popular Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
Arts and education
The Canton Museum of Art, founded in 1935, is a broad-based community arts organization designed to encourage and promote the fine arts in Canton. The museum focuses on 19th and 20th Century American artists, specifically works on paper, and on American ceramics, beginning in the 1950s. The museum sponsors annual shows of work of high school students in Canton and Stark County, and financial scholarships are awarded. Educational Outreach programs take the museum off-site to libraries, parochial schools, area public schools, five inner city schools and a school for students with behavioral disorders. The city's Arts District, located downtown, is the site of monthly First Friday arts celebrations.
Canton's K-12 students are primarily served by the Canton City School District, although students north of 17th Street NW have an overlap with Plain Local School District. Canton Local School District serves the better part of Canton South. Malone University, a private, four-year liberal arts college affiliated with the Evangelical Friends Church, is located on 25th Street NW. Catholic-run Walsh University is located nearby in North Canton. Stark State College and a branch of Kent State University are also nearby, in Jackson Township. Also, in downtown Canton, there is a small annex for Stark State College to be used by the Early College High School students who are located on the Timken Campus.
The city is also served by two Catholic high schools: St. Thomas Aquinas High School and Central Catholic High School (located in Perry Township). Perry Township is also home to Perry High School which serves students from both the Massillon and Canton area. Catholic grade schools within the city limits of Canton are St. Peter, St. Joseph, and Our Lady of Peace. Additional Catholic schools in the Canton area include Canton St. Michael School, ranked first in the Power of the Pen state tournament in 2010, and Canton St. Joan of Arc School. There is also Heritage Christian School (K-12), a Christian grade school and high school. Canton Country Day School is a private PreK-8 school located just outside city limits in nearby Plain Township. Within the city limits is the private Canton Montessori School, which teaches according to the Montessori Plan for education proposed by Maria Montessori in the early 20th century.
Canton has the main branch of Stark County District Library.
Canton is served in print by The Repository, the city's only newspaper.
Canton is part of the greater Cleveland television media market. However, due to its proximity to Youngstown, it is common for residents to receive stations from that area.
There are also three television stations that are licensed to Canton, though none of them are major network affiliates.
- Channel 17: WDLI ? (TBN) ? serving Canton/Akron/Cleveland ? Christian
- Channel 39: WIVM-LD ? (RTV) ? Canton ? Local, independent
- Channel 47: WRLM ? (TCT) ? Canton ? Christian
Canton also has a cable Public-access television channel, Canton City Schools TV 11. The content varies based on the viewer's location. Citizens located in North Canton will see North Canton's programming instead of Canton City's. Those within the borders of Plain Local Schools will see Eagle Television's programming.
- 1060: WILB, (Living Bread Radio Inc., Catholic) ? Canton
- 1480: WHBC, (NextMedia Group, News/Talk) ? Canton
- 1520: WINW, (Gospel) ? Canton
- 92.5: WDJQ, (Top 40/CHR) "Q92" ? Alliance
- 94.1: WHBC-FM, (NextMedia Group, Hot AC) "Mix 94.1" ? Canton
- 95.9: WNPQ, (Tuscarawas Broadcasting Co., Contemporary Christian) "95.9 The Light" ? New Philadelphia
- 99.7: W259BW/WHOF HD2, (iHeartRadio, Country) "Canton's New Country" - Canton
- 101.7: WHOF (iHeartRadio, Variety Hits) "My 101.7" ? North Canton
- 106.9: WRQK (iHeartRadio, Rock) "Rock 106.9" ? Canton
Canton is home to the Pro Football Hall of Fame. The American Professional Football Association, the forerunner of the NFL, was founded in a Canton car dealership on September 17, 1920. The Canton Bulldogs were an NFL football team that played from 1920?1923 skipped 1924 season then played 1925 to '26 before folding.
Every summer, Canton is the home of the Pro Football Hall of Fame Enshrinement Festival, which includes a hot air balloon festival, ribs burn-off, fashion show, community parade, Sunday morning race, enshrinee dinner, and the Pro Football Hall of Fame Grand Parade. The festival culminates in the enshrinement of the new inductees and the NFL/Hall of Fame Game, a pre-season exhibition between teams representing the AFC and NFC at Tom Benson Hall of Fame Stadium.
Tom Benson Hall of Fame Stadium, used during the regular season by Canton McKinley High School (as well as some other area schools and colleges), was rated the number one high school football venue in America by the Sporting News in 2002. This may be partly attributable to the Bulldogs' rivalry with the nearby Massillon Washington High School Tigers, which is regarded as one of the best rivalries in all of high school football. Three of the Ohio High School Athletic Association state final football games are hosted in Canton at Tom Benson Hall of Fame Stadium. The other three take place in nearby Massillon, Ohio, at Paul Brown Tiger Stadium.
The Canton Legends played in the American Indoor Football Association at the Canton Civic Center. Operations were suspended in 2009. The Continental Indoor Football League also has offices in Canton.
The first official female bodybuilding competition was held in Canton in November 1977 and was called the Ohio Regional Women's Physique Championship.
Canton is also home to an NBA G League team, the Canton Charge, which started play with the 2011?12 season. The Cleveland Cavaliers have full control over the team. The Charge play their home games at the Canton Memorial Civic Center.
The Canton Invaders of the National Professional Soccer League II and American Indoor Soccer Association played home games at the Canton Memorial Civic Center from 1984 until 1996, winning five league championships. In 2009, the Ohio Vortex became an expansion team in the Professional Arena Soccer League. Operations have since been suspended.
Canton has been home to professional baseball on several occasions. A number of minor league teams called Canton home in the early 1900s, including the Canton Terriers in the 1920s and '30s. The Canton?Akron Indians were the AA affiliate of the major league Cleveland Indians for nine years, playing at Thurman Munson Memorial Stadium until the team relocated north to Akron following the 1996 season. Two independent minor league teams, the Canton Crocodiles and the Canton Coyotes, both members of the Frontier League, called Munson Stadium home for several years afterward. The Crocodiles, who won the league championship in their inaugural season in 1997, moved to Washington, Pennsylvania, in 2002, and the Coyotes moved to Columbia, Missouri, in 2003, after just one season in Canton.
Canton is home to the Bluecoats Drum and Bugle Corps, a world class competitor in Drum Corps International. The Bluecoats have been a part of the "top five" finalists in the DCI World Championships since 2013, and took home the Founders' Trophy in 2016, with their show entitled "Down Side Up".
Canton is connected to the Interstate Highway System via Interstate 77 which connects Canton to Charleston, West Virginia, and points south, and to Cleveland and Akron, Ohio, to the north.
U.S. Route 30 connects Canton to Fort Wayne, Indiana, and points west, and to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and points east. U.S. Route 62 connects Canton to Columbus, Ohio, and points southwest, and to Youngstown, Ohio, and points northeast.
The city has several arterial roads. Ohio 43 (Market Avenue, Walnut Avenue and Cherry Avenue), Ohio 153 (12th Street and Mahoning Road), Ohio 172 (Tuscarawas Street) / The Lincoln Highway, Ohio 297 (Whipple Avenue and Raff Avenue), Ohio 627 (Faircrest Street), Ohio 687 (Fulton Drive), and Ohio 800 (Cleveland Avenue) / A.K.A. Old Route 8.
Amtrak offers daily service to Chicago and Washington, D.C., from a regional passenger station located in Alliance, Ohio.
Norfolk Southern and the Wheeling-Lake Erie railroads provide freight service in Canton.
Akron-Canton Regional Airport (IATA: CAK, IACO: KCAK) is a commercial Class C airport located 10 miles (16 km) north of the city and provides daily commercial passenger and air freight service.
Stark Area Regional Transit Authority (SARTA) provides public transit bus service within the county, including service to Massillon, the Akron-Canton Regional Airport, and the Amtrak station located in Alliance.
In popular culture
On the July 21, 2008, Stephen Colbert on The Colbert Report made a comment about John McCain making a campaign stop in Canton, Ohio, and "not the crappy Canton in Georgia." The comment resulted in a local uproar, with the Canton, Georgia, mayor insisting Colbert had never visited the town along with an invitation for him to do so. On July 30, 2008, Colbert apologized for the story, insisting that he was incorrect and that the "real" crappy Canton was Canton, Kansas, after which he made several jokes at the Kansas town's expense. On August 5, Colbert apologized to citizens of Canton, Georgia and Canton, Kansas, then directing his derision on Canton, South Dakota. Colbert later went on to offer a half-hearted apology to Canton, South Dakota before proceeding to mock Canton, Texas. On October 28, Colbert turned his attention back to Canton, Ohio after Barack Obama made a campaign stop there, forcing Colbert to find it "crappy."
In 2009, the city was mistakenly listed on Google's map service as "Colesville". A rumor that the mistake was the result of a prank by rival football fans was denied by Google spokeswoman Elaine Filadelfo.
Canton has two sister cities:
- ? Acre, Israel
- ? Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico
- City website
- Canton City Schools
- Stark County District Library
About Rockford, IL (61114)
Rockford is a city in Winnebago County in the U.S. state of Illinois, in far northern Illinois. Located on the banks of the Rock River, Rockford is the county seat of Winnebago County (a small portion of the city is located in Ogle County). The largest city in Illinois outside of the Chicago metropolitan area, Rockford is the third-largest city in the state and the 171st most populous in the United States According to 2010 U.S. Census Data, the City of Rockford had a population of 152,871, with an outlying metropolitan area population of 348,360. The City of Rockford's population is 147,051 as of 2017, down 4.1% since 2010.
Settled in the mid-1830s, the position of the city on the Rock River made its location strategic for industrial development. In the second half of the 19th century, Rockford was notable for its output of heavy machinery and tools; by the twentieth century, it was the second leading center of furniture manufacturing in the nation, and 94th largest city. During the second half of the 20th century, Rockford struggled alongside many Rust Belt cities. Since the late 1990s, efforts in economic diversification have led to growth of automotive, aerospace, and healthcare industries, as well as the undertaking of various tourism and downtown revitalization efforts.
Nicknamed the Forest City, Rockford is presently known for various venues of cultural or historical significance, including Anderson Japanese Gardens, Klehm Arboretum, Tinker Swiss Cottage, the BMO Harris Bank Center, the Coronado Theatre, the Laurent House, and the Burpee Museum of Natural History. Its contributions to music are noted in the Mendelssohn Club, the oldest music club in the nation, and performers such as Phantom Regiment and Cheap Trick.
Settlement and development
Rockford traces its roots to 1834, as the combined settlements of Midway were founded on both banks of the Rock River. On the west bank, Germanicus Kent and Thatcher Blake (with his slave Lewis Lemon) founded Kentville; the east bank was settled by Daniel Shaw Haight. With the location of the Rock River equidistant between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River, the combined settlement derived the name "Midway". In 1836, Winnebago County was created (from both Jo Daviess and LaSalle counties), with Midway named as its county seat.
In 1837, the village of Midway was renamed Rockford, highlighting a rocky river ford across the Rock River in the village. The same year, Rockford established its first post office (with Daniel Shaw Haight as the first postmaster). In 1840, the first weekly newspaper began circulation. In 1847, Rockford Female Seminary (today Rockford University) was founded. In 1852, Rockford was officially chartered as a city; a year later, the long-running "Forest City" nickname first appeared, used by the New York Tribune. Also in 1852, the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad connected Rockford to Chicago by railroad.
At the time of its founding, many of the village's residents were transplants from the Northeastern United States and upstate New York. Descended from English Puritans, the Midway/Rockford population was similar to much of the rest of northern Illinois and nearly all of Wisconsin during the mid-19th century. After the Black Hawk War, additional immigrants moved to northern Illinois; during the 1830s and 1840s, Rockford and Winnebago County was considered a cultural extension of New England.
During the antebellum period, Rockford shared abolitionist leanings, lending considerable support to the Free Soil Party and the later Republican Party. In 1848, 42 percent of voters in Winnebago County (where Rockford dominated as the county seat) voted for Martin Van Buren. In 1852, Free Soil candidate John P. Hale became the first presidential candidate to visit Rockford, although he would only receive 28 percent of the vote. In 1860, Abraham Lincoln won 3,985 votes in Winnebago County to the 817 votes of Stephen A. Douglas.
The 1850s brought industry that would change Rockford forever. In 1853, inventor John Henry Manny moved to Rockford to produce horse-drawn mechanical reapers for farmers and transport the finished products by rail. Chicago implement manufacturer Cyrus McCormick (whose company became International Harvester) took Manny to court after he produced nearly 6,000 machines; Manny would prevail on both judgement and an appeal. Along with production of agricultural machines, Swedish furniture cooperatives established the city as a manufacturing base. The Rockford Union Furniture Company, under John Erlander, spearheaded these cooperatives. Today, Erlander's home is a Rockford museum that shows his efforts in elevating Rockford to second in furniture manufacturing in the nation, behind Grand Rapids.
During the Civil War, one of the first Illinois regiments to be mobilized, the Zouaves, were from Rockford. The city also served as the site for Camp Fuller, a training site for four other infantry regiments.
In 1884, Rockford established its first city-wide public school district, constructing Rockford Central High School in 1885; following the construction of the high school, the district began construction of brick multi-story multigrade school buildings across the city.
The Rockford Female Seminary became the alma mater of Jane Addams in 1881. This move accompanied the Seminary's transition into a more complete curriculum, which was represented by its renaming to Rockford College in 1892. Culture flourished with the founding of the Mendelssohn Club in 1884, which became the oldest operating music club in the United States. This was complemented by the construction of a Carnegie library in 1902, which became the first building of Rockford's public library system. 1903 saw the dedication of the Winnebago County Veterans Memorial Hall in the presence of sitting President Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt returned to Rockford during his campaign in 1912 and again to address the soldiers at Camp Grant, a training site for World War I soldiers.
The twentieth century saw demographic changes to Rockford. An influx of Italians, Poles, Lithuanians, and African Americans replaced the previously dominant Irish and Swedes. The city was also no stranger to contemporary political issues. Electorally divided between wets and drys on the subject of prohibition, Rockford featured a coalition of labor unionists and socialists that elected numerous aldermen and carried 25 to 40 percent in mayoral elections. During World War I, an antiwar protest by the International Workers of the World led to 118 arrests. In 1920, the city was a target of the Palmer Raids. While its congressional district favored Republicans, Rockford continuously elected former Socialists as mayor between 1921 and 1955.
One of its contemporary attractions, the Coronado Theatre, opened in 1927. Noted for its atmospheric styling, the Coronado rivaled its counterparts in Chicago and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. Camp Grant was turned over to the Illinois National Guard. During World War II, it reopened as an induction center and POW detention camp. The USS Rockford, a Tacoma-class frigate named for the city, was commissioned in March 1944 and earned two service stars.
In the September 1949 issue of Life magazine, postwar Rockford was described as "nearly typical of the U.S. as any city can be." Due to this archetypal nature, sociologists like W. Lloyd Warner warned of the necessity to "understand the realities of their system." Heavily dependent on manufacturing and experiencing a shift in economic development toward its eastern borders, Rockford began to suffer irrevocable decline. Impetuses for this shift in economic development include the construction of the Northwest Tollway in 1958, the new campus for Rockford College in 1964, and the campus of Rock Valley College and the Chrysler Belvidere Assembly Plant in 1965 near the eastern periphery of the city rather than downtown.
Efforts to revitalize the downtown were made in the 1970s with the construction of a pedestrian mall and a ten thousand-seat multipurpose arena. The former sectioned off Rockford's Main Street, impeding vehicle traffic, to the criticism of nearby business owners. The latter, the MetroCentre, opened in 1981 to performances by Dionne Warwick and The Rolling Stones. State grants were also consulted to reverse the trend, such as those that funded an Alexander Liberman sculpture placed at a downtown intersection in 1978. However, further decay occurred in the 1980s, such as the end of Amtrak service on the Black Hawk rail route from Chicago in 1981 and the closure of the Coronado Theatre due to declining revenues in 1984.
Economic diversification has been difficult but ongoing for the area. The aerospace industry, represented by Woodward and UTC Aerospace Systems, is dominant in Rockford. In 2012, Woodward selected suburban Loves Park for a $200 million manufacturing campus toward its energy control and optimization systems. Boeing included Rockford in a list of five finalists to manufacture the 777X during union disputes in 2014. The healthcare industry, represented by OSF Saint Anthony Medical Center and SwedishAmerican Hospital, is also involved. SwedishAmerican, in partnership with the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, opened a $39 million Regional Cancer Center in 2013.
Downtown improvements became more evident in the first decade. The Coronado Theatre reopened after an $18.5 million renovation in 2001. The controversial pedestrian mall was removed, returning Main Street to a two-lane thoroughfare complete with cafe-style seating and wind-powered streetlights. The MetroCentre underwent a $20 million renovation, prompting interest in the purchasing of its naming rights; the arena was subsequently renamed the BMO Harris Bank Center. An open-air amphitheatre and a riverwalk were constructed to tie the Discovery Center Museum and the Burpee Museum of National History together. Most significantly, the Stanley J. Roszkowski U.S. Courthouse was constructed for $100 million and the restoration of daily Black Hawk rail service began, scheduled for completion in 2015, for $223 million.
Even before the Great Recession had an effect on Rockford, the city was affected by flooding of its Keith Creek in 2006 and 2007. Grants were won from FEMA to widen the creek and demolish over one hundred homes to stem the severity of future floods. Since the crisis set in, population has declined. Thirty two percent of the area's mortgages were underwater by 2013; Forbes rated Rockford number three on its America's Most Miserable Cities list in the same year. In the first four months of 2014, the unemployment rate of Rockford declined from 12.9 percent to 9.2 percent, but these figures remained well above the national average.
The emphasis given to eastern areas in Rockford have rendered their western counterparts with blighted neighborhoods. In 2002, Rockford's public school system was court-ordered to spend $250 million on upgrades to western schools after it was found culpable for discrimination against residents served by them, many of whom were African American.
Rockford has recently seen more of a diversification in its economy. Job gains have resulted in the lowest unemployment rate in Rockford since 2000. Most significantly, Mercy Health, the largest employer in nearby Janesville, WI decided in 2016 to build its largest facility in Rockford after a lengthy political debate. The massive $465 million complex is the most expensive construction project in Rockford history. The facility is expected to be completed by 2019.Also in 2016, ATI, ABX and Atlas Air partnered with Amazon Prime Air and began operating multiple daily cargo flights from the Rockford Airport.
According to the 2010 census, Rockford has an area of 61.949 square miles (160.45 km2), of which 61.08 square miles (158.20 km2) (or 98.6%) is land and 0.869 square miles (2.25 km2) (or 1.4%) is water. Neighboring communities that border Rockford, and are considered an integral part of the Rockford metro area, are the cities of Loves Park, Machesney Park, Belvidere, and the villages of Winnebago, Roscoe, Rockton, Poplar Grove, New Milford, and Cherry Valley.
Also of note, South Beloit, Illinois and Beloit, Wisconsin are part of this continuous urban area that stretches for approximately 30 miles along the Rock River from the Chicago Rockford International Airport north to the Southern Wisconsin Regional Airport. Rockford is approximately 85 miles west-northwest of Chicago, and 70 miles south-southeast of Madison.
The Rock River forms the traditional center of Rockford and is its most recognizable natural feature. One of its largest tributaries, the Kishwaukee River, joins the Rock River at the southern end of the city near the Rockford airport. Since the 1946 closure of Camp Grant, much of the length of Kishwaukee has been redeveloped into parkland and forest preserves, effectively forming the southern border of the city. Other waterways that feed into the Rock River include Spring Creek (northeast region), Keith Creek (east region), and Kent Creek (west region). Of the 8 Illinois dams of the Rock River, the Fordham dam is located south of downtown.
Due to its location in the Midwest, naturally a deciduous forest, Rockford's climate has four clearly defined seasons. Summers are usually hot with the average high temperature in July, the hottest month, being 84.5 °F (29.2 °C). The winter months can bring bitterly cold air masses from Canada. The average high temperature in January, the coldest month, is 29.5 °F (?1.4 °C). June is Rockford's wettest month while January is the driest. During a typical year, Rockford receives 36.2 inches (919.6 mm) of precipitation.
Rockford and surrounding areas are prone to violent thunderstorms during March, April, May, and June. On April 21, 1967, a violent F4 tornado struck the neighboring town of Belvidere, killing twenty-four people and injuring hundreds more at Belvidere's High School. Other severe weather events, such as hail and strong winds are common in these storms. On July 5, 2003 at 04:13, supercells produced tornadoes causing widespread damage on both the east and west sides of Rockford. Approximately 70,000 people were without power, with many on the west side suffering in the heat without electricity for a week. It took months to clear the damage, but because the storm struck so early in the morning there were no injuries or fatalities. However, these sometimes violent storms bring the majority of summer rainfall.
The city is also prone to severe snowstorms in winter, and blizzards are frequent winter occurrences. On January 13, 1979 over 9 inches (23 cm) of snow fell on Rockford in just a few hours during one of the strongest blizzards in the city's history. The city averages approximately 36 inches (91.4 cm) of snowfall in a normal winter, but greater amounts are common. The snowiest winter in the history of the city was the winter of 1978?1979, when 74.5 inches (189 cm) of snow fell.
The record high temperature is 112 °F (44 °C), set on July 14, 1936 during the Dust Bowl, and the record low temperature is ?27 °F (?33 °C), set on January 10, 1982, though a low of ?25 °F (?32 °C) has occurred as recently as January 16, 2009, and -21 °F (-29 °C) was observed on February 11, 2014.
As of the 2010 census, there were 152,871 people and 66,700 households. Rockford is in the center of its namesake metropolitan area. The racial makeup of the city was 65.1% White (58.4% Non-Hispanic white), 20.5% African American, 0.4% Native American, 2.9% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 7.5% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 15.8% of the population.
The median income for a household in the city was $55,667, and the median income for a family was $65,465. Males had a median income of $37,098 versus $25,421 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,781. 14.0% of the population and 10.5% of families were below the poverty line. 19.6% of those under the age of 18 and 8.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.
In the late 1950s, Rockford surpassed Peoria as the second largest city in Illinois by population, holding onto that position into the 21st century. In 2003, the status was changed as it was overtaken by Aurora after the results of a special census held by the latter city (as the two cities were not counted together, a direct comparison was not possible until the national census in 2010).
Like many other Rust Belt and midwestern cities, Catholics make up Rockford's largest religious group. According to 2010 figures, 20% of Winnebago County residents are Catholic, 19% are Evangelical, 10% are Mainline Protestant and 48% belong to a non-listed faith or have no religion. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Rockford, several large evangelical and non-denominational churches, and several Lutheran and other Mainline Protestant congregations serve Rockford's Christian community. Rockford's Jewish community is served by a synagogue, the Muslim community by a mosque, the Sikhs by a temple, and its Buddhist community is served by two houses of worship.
Law and government
Since the creation of Winnebago County in 1836, Rockford has served as its county seat. Rockford is the largest Dillon's Rule municipality in Illinois, having revoked home rule in 1983. Along with a mayor (elected every four years), the Rockford City Council consists of 14 alderman (elected every 4 years), with the city divided into 14 wards.
In a fashion similar to other cities its size (or larger), local government is split into executive and legislative branches. The mayor of Rockford is chosen in a general election every four years. The Rockford City Council consists of 14 aldermen, individually elected from each ward in the city. The City Council, as of May 2017, consists of:
In contrast to other large cities in Illinois, Rockford is within a single township. By area and population, Rockford Township is the largest township in Illinois. Operating separately from the city of Rockford, the township performs civil services for several unincorporated areas of the city, as well as for other areas of the township outside of city limits.
As of January 2017, the ten largest employers in Rockford, Illinois are:
Mrs. Fisher's, also known as Mrs. Fishers Potato Chips, a regional manufacturer of potato chips founded in Rockford, is a recognized brand name of potato chips in parts of the Midwestern United States. Since 1923, Rockford has been home to Kegel Harley-Davidson; owned by the same family since 1912, it is the oldest family-owned Harley-Davidson franchise in existence.
Roads and highways
By highway, Rockford is linked by highway to Wisconsin (Madison, Milwaukee), Iowa (Dubuque), and many parts of Illinois. In the past 30 years, the centralized location of the region has worked to an advantage in attracting jobs the logistics and transportation industries.
Public transportation in the city is provided by the Rockford Mass Transit District (RMTD).
- Interstate 90
- Known as the Northwest Tollway before 2007, the Jane Addams Memorial Tollway links the city to Madison, Wisconsin and the northwest Chicago suburbs. From Rockford north, I-90 replaces U.S. Route 51 in Illinois. I-90 also links the city with Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as I-43 joins it 2 miles north of the state line.
- Originally placed several miles east of the city, the Northwest Tollway would play a role in the rapid growth of the eastern half of Rockford in the later 20th century.
- U.S. Route 20
- U.S. Route 20 travels through Rockford twice. The city also marks the point where the highway and Interstate 90 no longer parallel each other travelling westward. The original highway is marked as a four to six-lane east-west business route (State Street) that divides the city to the north and south. From the 1970s to the late 1990s, the road played a key role in commercial development to the city.
- In 1965, a four-lane US 20 freeway bypass was completed. Starting from Northwest Tollway near Cherry Valley, the bypass traveled alongside the southern end of the city, joining the business route approximately two miles west of the city limits. From the west, US 20 (also known as the Grant Memorial Highway) provides a link to Freeport, Galena, and Dubuque, Iowa. Much of the highway west of Freeport is a winding two-lane road that discourages truck traffic. To the east, US 20 roughly parallels Interstate 90, becoming a major central thoroughfare in several Chicago suburbs.
- The US 20 bypass intersects with Illinois 251 (formerly US 51); it also forms the northern terminus of the Illinois segment of Interstate 39. Both highways are then concurrent eastward to Interstate 90, where the bypass ends.
- Interstate 39 and U.S. Route 51
- U.S. Route 51 travels through Rockford twice; the original alignment of the highway is now renamed Illinois Route 251. Entering through southeast Rockford through New Milford, Route 251 travels through the eastern half of the city among several major surface streets; as it exits Rockford, Route 251 serves as the primary north-south thoroughfare from Loves Park to South Beloit.
- During the late 1970s and early 1980s, the original Route 51 was replaced by the construction of Interstate 39, which adopted the alignment of the previous two-lane highway. Directly connecting Rockford to Bloomington-Normal, Interstate 39 also gives interstate access to Peoria and the Quad Cities; with access to Interstate 80 and Interstate 88, Interstate 39 allows for Rockford access to the southern suburbs of Chicago, also indirectly serving as a bypass around the city to Wisconsin.
- Other roads/highways
- Illinois Route 2 (South/North Main Street)
- Illinois Route 70 (Kilburn Avenue)
- Illinois Route 251 (North Second Street, Kishwaukee Street, Harrison Avenue, 11th Street)
- Raoul Wallenberg Expressway (proposed, never built)
- The Veterans Memorial Beltway consists of four-lane surface roads that create a continuous outer loop around the city. The roads that make up the beltway include Perryville Road, Harrison Avenue, Springfield Avenue, and Riverside Boulevard.
The Rockford Mass Transit District (RMTD) provides fixed-route and paratransit service, with a service area including Rockford, Loves Park, and Machesney Park. The 40 fixed route buses operate over 17 routes Monday thru Saturday, 6 night routes and 5 routes on Sundays.
In April 2018, Rockford became included in the LimeBike bicycle-sharing network. Using 500 commuter bicycles supplied by the company, residents rent bicycles through a mobile app, unlocking the dockless bicycles. Distinguished by their bright green color, LimeBikes are equipped with a basket, lights, and GPS (to locate them for rental); one-speed and three-speed units are in use.
In 1946, after Camp Grant closed, the state of Illinois allowed for the establishment of an airport to serve Rockford. Built on the portion of the Camp Grant property between the Rock River and US 51 (now Illinois 251), the Greater Rockford Airport was between the southern border of Rockford and New Milford. Opened in 1946, the Greater Rockford Airport opened its current passenger terminal in 1987. In 1994, United Parcel Service (UPS) opened the first of its two facilities at the airport; Rockford is home to the second-largest UPS air package operation (after Worldport in Louisville, Kentucky).
Following the loss of passenger service at the airport from 2001 to 2003, the Greater Rockford Airport underwent several name changes, becoming the Chicago Rockford International Airport in 2007. Since the restoration of passenger service in 2003, the Rockford airport primarily markets its passenger service for leisure travelers, offering flights by Allegiant Air along with charter operations on a seasonal basis.
Machesney Airport, located north of the city, was opened in 1927 as a private airport serving the Rockford area. During World War II, the airport was utilized by the Army Air Corps. After the war, it again served as municipal airport, closing in 1974. After its closure, the Machesney Airport became the site of the Machesney Park Mall, built in 1980.
As of 2017, the Rockford region is not served by passenger rail service. From 1974 to 1981, Rockford was served by Amtrak via its Black Hawk route, a daily train service from Dubuque, Iowa to Union Station in Chicago with a stop in Rockford. The Black Hawk was discontinued in September 1981 as part of funding cuts to Amtrak.
During the 2000s, interest increased in relinking the Rockford and Chicago regions by rail. In 2006, the Northern Illinois Commuter Transportation Initiative proposed extending Metra train service from the western Chicago suburbs to Rockford. While Metra service has yet to be proposed on an official level, during the early 2010s, design work on a planned 2015 revival of the Black Hawk route on Canadian National rails., with Rockford as the initial terminus. As part of the ongoing Illinois financial crisis, state funding for the Black Hawk revival was suspended in February 2015, putting the project on hold.
Rockford is served by several different freight railroad lines, the Union Pacific, the Canadian National, the Iowa, Chicago & Eastern (Canadian Pacific), and the Illinois Railway. The Union Pacific line from West Chicago terminates in Rockford, at a small yard. Canadian National line from Elgin enters from the South-East, and leaves in the North-West. They have a small yard, where they interchange with the Illinois Railway. The Illinois Railway Rockford Line comes from the South, joins the Canadian National line, where they continue on trackage rights to the Canadian National yard. Canadian Pacific (Iowa, Chicago, and Eastern) runs on Illinois Railway trackage rights from Davis Junction, and leaves on their own trackage to the North. All of the railroads interchange at a yard off of Main Street. The Union Pacific Railroad's Global III Intermodal Facility is approximately 25 miles (40 km) south of Rockford in Rochelle, Illinois, a community of 10,000. The complex is one of the world's largest intermodal facilities. Construction on the state-of-the-art facility was completed in 2003 in Rochelle due to the close proximity to four interstate highways (I-39, I-88, I-80, and I-90) and rail routes.
Although Rockford is in a large metropolitan area, the region does not have any public 4-year universities; the closest such institution is Northern Illinois University in DeKalb, 45 miles (72 km) away. Along with Rockford University (a private 4-year school of just under 2000 students), the city is the home to Rock Valley College (a 10,000-student community college), Rockford Business College (re-branded as Rockford Career College in 2009), and St. Anthony College of Nursing.
In addition, it hosts several satellite branches of other schools, including Judson University (based in Elgin), Northern Illinois University (based in DeKalb), Rasmussen College, Embry?Riddle Aeronautical University as a part of their "worldwide campus", and the University of Illinois College of Medicine (based in Chicago).
Rockford University is best known for graduating Jane Addams, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 for her efforts to promote international peace and justice. Laura Jane Addams (1860?1935) entered what was then Rockford Female Seminary in 1877 and became the first graduate to receive a B.A. degree from the newly accredited baccalaureate institution in 1882 (the school was renamed Rockford College in 1892, and Rockford University in 2013).
Rock Valley College is a community college with several locations in the Rockford area. The main campus is the site of the Bengt Sjostrom Theatre. The former outdoor theatre now features a motorized retractable roof constructed during 2003.
Public School District 205
Serving Rockford, Cherry Valley, and portions of Winnebago and Boone counties, Rockford Public School District 205 covers an area of roughly 170 square miles (440 km2). With approximately 27,000 students, it is the state's fourth-largest school district by enrollment. District 205 has four high schools (Auburn, East, Guilford, and Jefferson), six middle schools, and 29 elementary schools. It also operates early-childhood and alternative education centers.
In addition to its public school system, Rockford supports 27 sectarian and nonsectarian private schools ranging from elementary to secondary education.
Culture and tourism
The attractions of Rockford are often of architectural significance. The Lake-Peterson House, constructed by alderman John Lake in 1873 and preserved by Swedish industrialist Pehr August Peterson, is a notable example of Gothic Revival. Added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980, it is used for the School of Medical Technology of the Rockford-based Swedish American Hospital. Further Swedish influence on Rockford during the Victorian era is represented in the Erlander Home Museum, the base of the Swedish Historical Society. Swiss influence can be seen in the Tinker Swiss Cottage, which was opened as a museum under the park district in 1943 and was featured in an episode of Ghost Hunters in 2012.
Modern architectural movements, like Art Deco and Prairie School, are also integral to Rockford. Most renowned is the Coronado Theatre, a civic and entertainment center named one of 150 Great Places in Illinois by the American Institute of Architects. The theatre is known for its blend of Art Deco with Spanish Baroque Revival and has hosted numerous performers over its lifetime, including the Marx Brothers, Frank Sinatra, and Bob Dylan. The 186-foot tall Faust Hotel complements the Coronado; constructed in 1929, it endures as Rockford's tallest building, albeit as apartments for the elderly and disabled. The Laurent House, a single-story Usonian home constructed in 1952 by Frank Lloyd Wright, is the only Wright building designed for a person with disabilities. Acquired by a private foundation from its commissioners, it was renovated into a museum in 2014. The Rockford Area has two additional places named by the American Institute of Architects in the 150 Great Places, Anderson Japanese Gardens in Rockford, Illinois and Poplar Grove United Methodist Church in Poplar Grove, Illinois.
The area is often regarded as an outdoor destination. Rock Cut State Park is to the northeast of the city. Once home to various Scots, Canadians, and New Englanders, as well as a railroad line to Kenosha, the park's 3,092 acres are now utilized for camping, hiking, fishing and boating, and hunting. Anderson Japanese Gardens, modeled after the Portland Japanese Garden and landscaped by Hoichi Kurisu, is 10 acres in size and features a teahouse and guesthouse in the sukiya-zukuri style. John Anderson, the commissioner of the gardens, was presented with a commemorative silver cup by Japan for his efforts in the mutual understanding of cultures in 1992; he donated the gardens to a nonprofit organization later in 1998. Klehm Arboretum and Botanic Garden is 155 acres in size and is noted for its selection of both indigenous and foreign plant species.
More recently, Experience Based Learning opened a Zip-line attraction, as its founder (Steve Gustafson) is a Rockford native.
The park district of Rockford (Rockford Park District) is particularly active. It operates Aldeen Golf Course, which was rated the best municipal golf course in Illinois by Golf Digest and one of the top fifty golf courses in the nation that cost under $50 to play by Golf Magazine. In addition to Tinker Swiss Cottage, the park district maintains four other museums. The Burpee Museum of Natural History is home to the world's most complete juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex, Jane, as well as a triceratops, Homer. The Discovery Center Museum, a children's museum featuring over 250 hands-on exhibits including a planetarium, is on the 12 Best Children's Museums In The U.S. list by Forbes. The Burpee Museum and the Discovery Center Museum, along with the Rockford Art Museum and the bases for Northern Public Radio, the Rockford Dance Company, and the Rockford Symphony Orchestra compose the downtown Riverfront Museum Park complex. The last museum under the park district's authority is Midway Village and Museum Center, a recreation of a Victorian era village. The eastern riverwalk of Rockford is maintained by the park district, featuring the Nicholas Conservatory and Garden., Located on the bank of the Rock River, the conservatory is the third-largest in the state of Illinois. Just north of the gardens is Symbol, an Alexander Liberman sculpture moved from downtown during the 1980s and is now one of Rockford's most recognizable features.
- Rockford IceHogs (ice hockey; UHL 1999-2007, AHL 2007?present)
- Rockford Rivets (baseball; NWL 2015?present)
- Rockford Rage (women's roller derby; 2006?present)
- Rockford Raptors (indoor football)
- Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps (drum corps international/marching music; 1956?present)
- Rockford Forest Citys (baseball, 1871)
- Rockford Rampage (indoor soccer; AISL 2005-2008, NISL 2008-2010)
- Rockford Fury (basketball; PBL, 2006?2008)
- Rockford Lightning (basketball, 1986?2005)
- Rockford Peaches (women's baseball, 1943?1954)
- Rockford Foresters (baseball; Midwest Collegiate League 2010?2013)
- Rockford Aviators (baseball; Frontier League 2002-2009, Northern League 2010, Frontier League 2011?2015)
From 1943 to 1954, the Rockford Peaches were an inaugural team of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League. Playing home games at Beyer Stadium, the Peaches won league championships in 1945, 1948, 1949, and 1950; the four championships are the most of any league member.
The Rockford Peaches and the league itself were portrayed in the 1992 motion picture A League of Their Own. However, the characters in the film are fictional; the Peaches did not compete for the 1943 league championship (as depicted in the film). Since Beyer Stadium was demolished by the time of filming, the city of Rockford was not featured in production.
Surrounding communities and suburbs
- Brovary, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine since 1995
- Changzhou, Jiangsu, China since 1999
- Borgholm, Sweden since 2002
- Cluj-Napoca, Romania since 2005
- Ferentino, Lazio, Italy since 2006
- Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan
- Taszár, Hungary
Rockford is the 161st largest radio market in the United States. It is ranked 136th by Nielsen Media Research for the 2015-2016 television season with 170,140 television households.
The area is served by over 15 commercial radio stations, over 5 non-commercial radio stations, 2 low power FM radio stations, 5 TV stations and 1 daily newspaper.
- Irish Marching Society
- Winnebago County War Memorial
- Phantom Regiment Drum and Bugle Corps
- Rockford Pro-Am Golf Tournament
- Rockford Symphony Orchestra
- List of tallest buildings in Rockford, Illinois
- Harlem Park amusement park and Chautauqua site 1891-1928
- Program catalog, 1905 Chautauqua, Rockford, Illinois
- Sutrina, Katie. "The 'Rosies' of Rockford: Working Women in Two Rockford Companies in the Depression and World War II Eras," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 102 (Fall?Winter 2009), 402?28.
- Official website
- Rockford Area CVB travel guide
- Rockford Art Museum
- Mendelssohn Performing Arts Center
- Midway Village Museum
- Discovery Center
- Swedish immigration to Rockford
- Swedish Historical Society of Rockford
- Erlander Home Museum
- Reference guide